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Drilling mud in drilling mud system


What is drilling mud?

Drilling mud also known as drilling fluid is a product which is used in the process of drilling deep boreholes. These holes may be drilled for oil and gas extraction, core sampling, and a wide variety of other reasons. The mud can be an integral part of the drilling process, serving a number of functions.

Using drilling mud protects the stability of a borehole by controlling variables such as friction and pressure. Different mud are needed for different circumstances, and the selection and formulation of mud is managed by a mud engineer. This engineer determines the correct viscosity level for the drilling mud, and adjusts factors such as density of the mud as well. Water, oil, and gas-based mud can all be used, with products ranging from true mud made with materials like bentonite clays to synthetic drilling fluid.

Drilling mud is circulating fluid during complete well drilling. It is mixed with fluid, solid and chemical. In past long period, we used to call drilling fluid as “slurry”. Actually it’s not exactly right. The solid particle in the drilling mud can be divided into harmful solid and useful solid two parts.

Harmful solids in drilling process will affect the physical properties of the drilling fluid, drilling fluid density, viscosity, shear force, water, mud cake, abrasive, viscosity, flow resistance increased, its results Guide Damage of oil and gas, reduce drilling speed, increased drilling disc torque, pulling resistance, adhesion blocking drilling, hole leakage.

The function of drilling mud

To cleaning the well bottom, carrying cuttings. To keep the bottom clean, avoid bit repetitive cutting, reduce wear, improve efficiency.

For cooling and lubricating the drill bit and drill string. Reduced temperature reduced drill bit, drill wear, improving the service life of drilling tools.

The balance of borehole side pressure, in the wall of the filter cake, closed and borehole stability. Prevent the pollution to oil and gas formation and borehole collapse.
Balance ( control ) formation pressure. To prevent well blowout, well leakage, prevent the formation fluid contamination of drilling fluid by.
Suspended cuttings and weighting agents. Reducing cuttings settling velocity, avoid heavy sand sticking in the ground to sink except sand and debris.
The effective transmission of hydraulic power. Transfer of downhole drill motors required power and bit hydraulic power.
Bear the drill pipe and casing of the component of gravity. Drilling fluid for drilling and casing of the buoyancy, can reduce the tripping when the load lifting system.
To provide the drilling formation of large amounts of data. Use of drilling fluid by electrical logging, logging and other downhole data acquisition.
Hydraulic breaking rock. Drilling fluid through a nozzle formed by the high speed jet can directly broken or auxiliary rock breaking.