The basic of drilling technology knowledge
Drilling machine type and componen
A Drilling construction basic knowledge
Oil drilling is refers to use special techniques and methods, in advance of the selected surface position place, down or a side drilling a certain diameter holes,reached the underground oil reservoir
B Drilling methods development
Artificial digging wells: Before 1521. Human impact drivers: 1521-1835, is to depend on human. Machinery drilling: 1859-1901, is to relay on mechanical shock to broken rock. Rotary drilling: Development from 1901, the rotary drilling is to relay on power drive rotation,in the process of rotation to rock bottom broken. Rotary drilling divided into turntable drilling, underground power, drilling rig drilling and top drive rotating drilling.
Before drilling: location of well, road exploration, foundation construction, move house, erecting equipment.
Drilling construction: once drilling, twice drilling, drilling, up to the drilling, exchange drills, run in hole.
Well completion construction: well completion electrical logging, casing cementing.
Drilling is the process of using the drilling equipments and broken rock tools break the strata to form the well tubes. The aim is for geological evaluating, founding oil-gas reservoir, and developing oil-gas reservoir. Construction process: drilling-washing well---by single-drill down-completion well.
Well cementation is a certain size casing string into the well, injecting the cement around, the casing fixed in the wall of the well, to avoiding the wall of the well collapse. Construction process: Putting down the casings get to appointed depth --- installing cement heads, cycling mud, connecting the ground pipelines---injecting isolation liquid---pouring into cement---peaking rubber stoppers---replacing mud---touching pressure---finish pouring into cement, waiting clotting.
Drilling machines types and constitute
Constitute: Oil rigs mainly made of motors motivations working machineries and auxiliary equipments. Usually has eight systems (lifting systems, rotating systems, drilling fluid circulating system, transmission systems, control systems, power driven systems, drilling machine foundations) has up-down drilling, rotary drilling, circulating drilling.
Types: According to drilling depth divided into shallow drilling machines middle bore machines and bore machines.
According to driving ways divided into machinery drive drilling machines and electrically driven drilling machines. According to moving ways divided into prying machines and truck machines.
Mechanical drive drilling types and characteristics
Types: Mechanical drive drillings refers to diesel engine for power, mainly including gear transmission belt transmission, and chain transmission three forms, has the characteristics of easy fabrication and low cost.
Status: now mechanical drive oil drilling mainly for the chain drilling machine, use chain as the transmission, the working unit unified driver, usually using the tape transmission drilling pumps.
Electrically drive drilling machine type and characteristic
Type: electrically drive drilling machine including continuous current dynamo and frequency variable frequency motor drive two forms. Electrically drive drilling machine has the characteristics of transmission soft, good speed regulation, easy operation, module small volume, installation convenient to move, high reliability, little noise, pollution small, energy conservation.
Continuous current dynamo drive: De electric drill is adopted AC-SCR-DC way,
Ac motor: Ac motor drill is adopted AC-VFD-AC, electric drive control system will diesel generating sets out a frequency conversion power adjustable current, adopting ac inverter driving no carbon brush ac frequency conversion motor.