In order to lift and lower the drilling tools, the lower casing and control the drilling pressure, feed drilling, drilling tools with the hoisting system. Lifting system comprises a winch, an auxiliary brake, crane, travel car, hook, wire rope and rings, elevators, hanging tongs, slips and various tools. Lifting and winch drum winding wire rope, crown and traveling vehicle constitutes the auxiliary pulley group, hook up through the rings, elevators and other tools to realize the drill ascension. Under the control of the weight of the drill string or casing column, with the help of the winch brake mechanism and the auxiliary brake control of large hooks. In normal drilling, drilling tool is realized by the rings, elevators and other tools to upgrade, and lower, the drill pipe or casing string by weight decreased, with the help of the winch brake mechanism and an auxiliary brake control hook lowering speed. In normal drilling, the feed speed of the drilling tool is controlled by the brake mechanism, and a part of the weight of the drilling tool is applied to the drill bit to achieve the broken rock layer.
The rotating system is a typical system of a rotary table, which is driven by the rotary drilling tool and the broken rock, and the rotating system comprises a rotary table, a rotary table, a tap and a drilling tool. According to the drilling, drilling tool composition also vary, in general, including Kelly, drill pipe, drill collar and drill, in addition to centralizer, shock absorber and with the joint etc.. The drill bit is a direct tool of crushing rock, a blade drill, drill, diamond bit type etc.. Drill collar weight and wall thick, used to to drill bit pressure, drill pipe surface equipments and downhole equipment connection and transfer torque. The cross section of the square drill rod is square. The rotary table is driven by the square drill rod and the drill string is rotating. The tap is a typical part of the rotary drilling rig. Circulation system: in order to carry out the debris in the bottom hole bit to the ground up to continue drilling, and to protect the borehole wall, to prevent the occurrence of drilling accidents such as well and so on. Circulating system comprises a drilling pump, ground pipe manifold, mud tank, mud purification equipment and so on, the ground pipe manifold including high-pressure pipe sinks, riser, hoses, mud purification equipment including drilling fluid vibrating screen, in addition to sand cleaner, with the exception of mud cleaner, drilling fluid centrifuge. Drilling pump the mud from the mud tank suction, the drilling pump pressurized mud, after high-pressure pipe sinks, riser, hoses, taps into, through the hollow drill to the bottom, ejected from a nozzle of the drill, the annular space between the hole and the drill cuttings carrying return to the ground, returning from the bottom of mud through the levels of mud purification equipment, removed from the solid content is then repeated using.
Power equipment. Hoisting system, circulatory system and rotary system are the three working units of the rig, which are used to provide power, they can complete the drilling operations, in order to provide power to these units, the rig needs to be equipped with power equipment. The power equipment of the drilling rig has the diesel engine, the AC motor, the DC motor. Diesel engine adaptation to in the absence of grid remote area drilling, the AC motor dependent on the industrial power or is the need for diesel engines emit AC, DC motor to diesel engine driven a DC DC generator, the more commonly used is driven by a diesel alternator issued AC, by silicon controlled rectifier, AC into DC. Transmission system: the transmission system to provide the power and the power of the movement to transform, and then transfer and distribution to the various units, to meet the different needs of the working unit to power. The transmission system includes speed reducer, transmission mechanism, reversing mechanism between and engine and vehicle mechanism etc.. Driven by the diesel engine directly by the use of a unified drive form, the transmission system is relatively complex, driven by the AC motor drive by the use of a single or grouped by the individual units of the form, drive system has been greatly simplified. Control system: in order to ensure the three working units of the rig to coordinate the work to meet the requirements of the drilling process, the rig is equipped with a control system. Control mode has mechanical control, gas control, electric control and liquid control, etc.. At present, the control method of the drill rig is the concentrated gas control. Driller by rig boss driller console can accomplish almost all rig control: as the total clutch clutch; the engine and car; drawworks, rotary table and drilling pump, stop; winch for high and low speed control. The derrick and the base: the derrick and the base are used to support and install the drilling equipment and tools, and provide the drilling operation place. Derrick used to install the crane and suspension travel car, hook, faucets and drill, bear drilling work load, discharge root; base is used for installing power unit, drawworks, rotary, support the derrick, with the aid of the turntable suspension to drill, provide great space between the wheel and the ground, to install the necessary anti preventer and facilitate the mud circulation. Auxiliary equipment: in order to ensure the safety and normal operation of the drilling rig, the rig also includes other auxiliary equipment, such as the prevention of blowout of the blowout prevention unit, to provide lighting and auxiliary power generation units, compressed air compressed air equipment and water supply, oil supply equipment, etc.